ACIAR Proceedings, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 13-17, Booth TH, Yan Hong, 1991. [2] From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. vi + 601 pp. plantations in China. (1986) list water alone and other sources exclude birds. Preventing the introduction of invasive species is one of the justifications for managers of national parks and other protected areas in developing countries limiting movement of people and livestock through the park. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. The wood is moderately dense with specific gravity about 0.75, splits easily and burns well with a calorific value of 3,500 - 4,600 kcal/kg. Willd. [Terra Australis 34. USDA-ARS, 2015. Summary: A study on the evaporation rates from areas infested with A. mearnsii in Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp. The bark is usually harvested at 8-10 years by ripping from the tree in long strips. Invasive, Mukwada G, Chingombe W, Taru P, 2016. It is widespread in indigenous South African forests occurring both along forest edges, in gaps of various sizes and inside closed forest (Geldenhuys et al., 1986) and it can invade pasture land (PIER, 20007). Black wattle silviculture in Brazil. 35: 52-56, Bootle KR, 1983. mollis auct. The soils are mainly loams, sandy loams, and deep forest podzols of moderate to low fertility. Throughout the Western and Eastern Cape, KZN, Mpumalanga and Gauteng. Dye and tannin-producing plants. Unusually, black wattle is probably better known and used outside Australia. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Chan JM, Day P, Feely J, Thompson R, Little KM, Norris CH, 2015. Australian Tree Species Research in China. is a fast growing tree species introduced into South Africa in the nineteenth century for commercial purposes. of ref. 35, 20-25; 10 ref, Moresby JF, 1997. Information cited in PIER (2007) notes that A. mearnsii can invade and disrupt pasture land thus reducing carrying capacity and profitability of livestock ranching, and as with other invasive species, control incurs an economic cost. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN). The flowers are mainly insect pollinated, with bees considered the most important pollinators due to their methodical foraging (Moncur et al., 1991; Grant et al., 1994). No. Investigations of the possible use of the foliage of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) ; many ref, Boucher C, 1980. Seeds 7 (1-14) per legume,  black, smooth, ovoid, 3-5 ×2-3.5 mm with a short, creamy, aril at base. IUFRO Acacia 2014 Conference, Hue, Vietnam, 18-21 March 2014. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 18-27, Roux J, Kemp GHJ, Wingfield MJ, 1995. In: Groves RH, Castri F di, eds. tree native to Australia. The scientific name for the Black Wattle is Acacia mearnsii (Fabaceae) and in Afrikaans it is known as the Swartwattel. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Leaves 8-12 cm long, bipinnate dark-green with  8-21 pairs of pinnae, each with 15-70 pairs of leaflets, 1.5-4 ×0.5-0.8 mm, olive green; glands  irregularly spaced along the upper surface of the rachis and on the petiole. Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii, De Wild.) It derives its name from the large quantities of liquid exuded by spittlebugs when they are actively feeding off the sap in the twigs of the plant. cottage to rent. Utilitarian perspective of the invasion of some South African biomes by Acacia mearnsii. Indian Forester, 109(6):395-400; 8 ref, Henderson L, 2001. February 2006. Liu et al. This species is very difficult to control as seeds can lie dormant for many years. In: Brown AG, ed. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Its leaves and branches have allelopathic properties, and Zhou et al. It causes a number of mainly environmental problems and is hard to control because of its ability to form root suckers. 2nd edn. Find black wattle wood in South Africa! In China, Yan et al. Invasive plants of the Mediterranean basin. Originally distributed as a source of tannin, black wattle is now recognized as a valuable fuel wood[ 303 ]. CABI is a registered EU trademark. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184, Cheboiwo JK, Ongugo PO, 1989., ILDIS, 2007. International Legume Database and Information Service. The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. It has been listed as a category 2 invader in South Africa, a noxious environmental weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds, and a noxious weed in USA (Randall, 2012). The Black Wattle is just one of many of these plants in Category 2 and we will cover these in the next few articles. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 239-246, Vulcano MA, Pereira FS, 1978. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 39-52, Webb DB, Wood PJ, Smith J, 1980. Forest Products Journal, 30(4):38-42; 22 ref, Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. (2012) report that A. mearnsii in riparian ecotones in South Africa is more drought tolerant than native woody tree species, suggesting that it will persist in future drier conditions.AssociationsA. Puu Makua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. A Contested Past and Present: Australian Trees in South Africa. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences, 13(1):37-54., National Academy of Sciences, 1980. Growth of Australian acacias in Tanzania. Forestry (Oxford), 79(4):381-388., Milton SJ, Dean WRJ, Richardson DM, 2003. Wattle trees are especially problematic in the Drakensberg region. Invasion of a natural Quercus suber stand in Algeria by Acacia mearnsii originating from Australia. It derives its name from the large quantities of liquid exuded by spittlebugs when they are actively feeding off the sap in the twigs of the plant. (1994) reported that 90% of flowers were wholly male. BioNET-EAFRINET (2015) reports it as invasive in parts of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Stein PP, Tonietto L, 1997. Drought-tolerance of an invasive alien tree, Feng YouYi, Dong XiaoHui, Hu RenYong, Ke QianQian, Ding BingYang, 2010. (black wattle) in Australia. 10-95, 13 pp. house to rent. 180:15-21; 32 ref, Poggenpoel PV, 1978. Small-scale Forestry, 15(1):127-134., Selincourt Kde, 1992. Pollination studies and breeding system in Acacia mearnsii. The Blackwattle Bay is a bay located to the south–east of Glebe Island and east of Rozelle Bay on Sydney Harbour, in New South Wales, Australia. Smith AP, 1982. The genus Oncideres Serville 1835 (Coleoptera, Lamiidae) in southern Brazil and adjacent countries, a serious pest of orchards and silviculture. Black Wattle and its Utilisation. In countries such as South Africa it is both an important forestry species and a highly invasive plant outside cultivation. This plant was originally introduced from Australia and Tasmania and the bark was used in the tanning of hides. We have to date not discussed many of the trees or plants that fall into Category 2. In Hawaii it was introduced in 1911 from California (Motooka et al., 2003). In: Brown AG, Ho CK, eds. University of Southampton, UK. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. 2, i + 19 pp. (2013) report that while this flower-galling midge reduces seed set to very low levels, it does not negatively affect growth of the tree and so will have no detrimental effect on the wattle forestry industry in South Africa. 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