The young leaves of most ornamental amaranth varieties can be picked and eaten as cooked greens. Its presence goes back some 4000 years bc in the Tehuacan Valley in Mexico, also the most likely site for the origin of maize. a, Biosynthesis and oligomerization of nonchimeric proteins; b, overall structure of chimeric proteins with amaranthin domains; c, key to figure symbols. Amaranthus caudatus has some common disease problems: Phytophthora Blight and Root Rot on Annuals and Herbaceous Perennials Bacterial Leaf Spot on Greenhouse Ornamentals . 6. However, other sources of betalains are species of the genus Amaranthus; other Cactaceae such as cactus fruits from Opuntia sp., Hylocereus polyrhizus, or Myrtillocactus geometrizans; and Swiss chard. The seeds, considered pseudocereals (nongrasses), are small and lenticular (disk-shaped), averaging 1–1.5 mm in diameter. In amaranth, under certain conditions, the nitrate content of leaves exceeds tolerable limits. Vegetable Ama-ranthus can be easily distinguished by inflorescence features like mostly or exclusively axillary glomerules or short spikes (Fig. Leaf color can be green, yellow, orange, or red, due to the presence of betacyanin. Globe Amaranth- Tall Purple. Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus poisoning in livestock. After Amaranthus sp --- --- Stem burrowing by larva Adults feed on leaves A serious pest of amaranth in Mexico, India, South Africa and Kenya Gupta and Rawat 1954; Louw et al., 1995; Torres-Saldaña et al., 2004; Kagali et al., 2013; Tara et al., 2009; Imam et al., 2010 Diptera Agromyzidae Liriomyza huidobrensis Sepentine leaf miner/ Pea leaf miner The seeds are eaten as a cereal grain. 1999) and Alternaria alternata has been isolated from A. paniculatus L. and A. retroflexus L. grains in Poland (Pusz 2009). Amaranth helps reduce risk of osteoporosis and other calcium deficiencies because it has twice the calcium as milk. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. Tamil name(s): English name(s): Slender amaranth : Description: Herbs, stem green or sometimes reddish, glabrous. Accordingly, one can reasonably assume that these subdomains rather than the 33 kDa lectin subunits correspond to the basic carbohydrate-binding unit. Common Name(s): Fountain Plant; Joseph's Coat; Previously known as: Amaranthus gangeticus; Phonetic Spelling am-a-RAN-thus TRY-col-or Description. There are about 60 species of Amaranthus, however, only a limited number are of the cultivated ty… A severe leaf curl disease was observed on ~45% of the grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) plants growing in experimental plots of CSIR-NBRI, Lucknow, India, during the year 2011. Hfr-2, a pore-forming toxin-like protein upregulated in wheat by virulent Hessian fly larval feeding, comprises besides the amaranthin domains a cytolytic domain. At present, there are three major germ plasm collections: (1) USDA Plant Introduction Center, Ames, Iowa, US; (2) Universidad del Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru; (3) National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Shimla, India. The most cultivated Amaranthus spp. The myocardial and renal toxins and mechanisms of toxicity are unknown, but both appear to require plant ingestion for several days to several weeks. Amaranth is classified within the Dicotyledoneae in the Amaranthaceae, which includes more than 70 genera. Blaise P. Nic Phiarais, Elke K. Arendt, in Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, 2008. Ornamental garden varieties sold under the latter name are either Amaranthus cruentus or a hybrid between A. cruentus and Amaranthus powellii. However, A. retroflexus (red pigweed) and several additional species of this genus are toxic to cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and, rarely, horses. Sequencing of the protein and cloning of the corresponding gene indicated that amaranthin is synthesized without signal peptide and undergoes, apart from the removal of a C-terminal tetrapeptide, no post-translational modification.24,25 Amaranthins have not been localized yet but they are believed to reside in the cytoplasmic/nuclear compartment. Bacterium. Hitherto, no lectins/proteins corresponding to a single amaranthin subdomain have been isolated or identified. Figure 1. Amaranth leaves are very useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Colours include dark red, orange and buff yellow. Type. Add to Cart. The Amaranthus genus is a complicated one, featuring at least 75 annual and perennial species that easily cross-breed and hybridize. J.A.G. Sow: Spring or after frost and summer. Microscopically, there is marked degeneration and necrosis of the convoluted renal tubular epithelium with interstitial edema. asymptomatic persistence, Amaranthus species demonstrate high levels of variability in leaf size, leaf shape, branching, bolting pattern, growth and regrowth ability, and color. They are ground into flour, popped like popcorn, cooked into a porridge, and made into a confectionery called ‘alegría’. Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments, which provide red-violet (betacyanins) and the yellow (betaxanthins) colors to some fruits and vegetables. The Amaranthus genus comprises approximately 70 dicotyledonous plant species collectively known as amaranths, of which 17 are used as dual-purpose crops for seeds and leafy … Amaranth seeds and oil (found in the seed) have fiber which contributes to lower cholesterol and risk of constipation. LEARN MORE: How To Attract Butterflies To Your Yard Or Garden. The Amaranthacea comprise over 60 genera, which include around 800 species of dicotlyledonous, herbaceous plants, of either annual or perennial growth. The virus-infected amaranthus plants exhibit symptoms of upward leaf curling, vein enation on the lower side of the leaves, and shortening of internodes. The later stage was controlled by the rate of gelatinization, which was dependent on the starch cultivar and the pH.1991, Native amaranthus (kiwicha) starch, which is a natural waxy starch, was hydrolyzed with bacterial alpha amylase to give a product of low viscosity. Renal disease also requires extended ingestion of Amaranthus spp. Amaranthus cruentus is subject to more pest and disease problems than most annual plants. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124157590000406, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123737397500174, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X000365, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444519672000672, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126528404500048, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123965233000014, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X012426, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123943149000142, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472001902, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472000258, Safety Assessment including Current and Emerging Issues in Toxicologic Pathology, Bryan L. Stegelmeier, ... Daniel Cook, in, Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), Malting and brewing with gluten-free cereals, Blaise P. Nic Phiarais, Elke K. Arendt, in, Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Biochemistry of Glycoconjugate Glycans; Carbohydrate-Mediated Interactions, Genetic, cellular and molecular interactions in the establishment of VA mycorrhizas, Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, VEGETABLES OF TROPICAL CLIMATES | Commercial and Dietary Importance, PLANT ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS | Detoxification, Viruses and Virus Diseases of Vegetables in the Mediterranean Basin. Summary of Invasiveness Top of page. Among the different diseases affecting amaranth, leaf blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, is the most devastating, especially during the monsoon period. Leafy vegetables are mostly used fresh as they are highly perishable. Chakrabarti, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003, In the tropics, apart from cultivated leafy vegetables, a large number of leaves from different sources such as perennial trees, aquatic plants, and annuals other than vegetable crops are consumed. Sally E Smith, David J Read, in Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Second Edition), 2002. smooth amaranthus, Bioactive peptides in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed. Animal serum or ocular fluid can be evaluated for nitrate or nitrite content post-mortem. With a focus on food, the scarce attention toward betalains may be due to the fact that red beet has long been considered the only edible betalainic source. Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L.), widely known as ‘poor man’s spinach’ is one of the cheapest, most accepted and commercially cultivated leafy vegetable in Kerala. As animals can develop clinical signs 5–10 days after exposure, it is likely that elimination of these toxins is slow. Many other tissues may be subsequently congested and edematous with occasional effusions. Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. How to Use Amaranth Amaranth is … The diagnosis of nephrotoxic or cardiotoxic diseases is based on known or verifiable ingestion, clinical presentation, and compatible pathologic lesions. Nitrate-induced methemaglobinemia can also be evaluated and forages can be analyzed to confirm toxic nitrate concentrations. Disease Resistance-Taste Profile. Fresh 100 g of leaf amaranth contains ... and thereby play a healing role in aging and various disease processes. Professor, Department of Plant Science, University of the Free State, P.O. 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