2. Wate r: birth-death-resurrection; creation; purification and redemption; fertility and growth. According to Hillman, that discourse was anticipated by Evangelos Christou’s Logos of the Soul (1963) and extended in religion (David L. Miller’s New Polytheism, 1974), philosophy (Edward Casey’s Imagining: A Phenomenological Study, 1976), mythology (Rafael Lopez-Pedraza’s Hermes and His Children, 1977), psycholinguistics (Paul Kugler’s Alchemy of Discourse: An Archetypal Approach to Language, 1982), and the theory of analysis (Patricia Berry’s Echo’s Subtle Body, 1982). The context of a genre determines how a symbol or image is to be interpreted. They also attest to his self-confessed lack of interest in literature: “I feel not naturally drawn to what one calls literature, but I am strangely attracted by genuine fiction, i.e., fantastical invention” (Letters 1:509). • Walker, Steven F. Jung and the Jungians on Myth. Archetypal criticism, then, construed as that derived from Jung’s theory and practice of archetypal (analytical) psychology, is a fledgling and much misconstrued field of inquiry with significant but still unrealized potential for the study of literature and of aesthetics in general. Northrop Frye, Bedford/St. Arguments about the Contemporary Dilemma with Frye’s Archetypal Literary Criticism In his remarkable and influential book Anatomy of Criticism (1957), N. Frye developed the archetypal approach into a radical and comprehensive revision of traditional grounds both in the theory of literature and the practice of literary criticism. (m – 07) (O-07). Falstaff, the bawdy, rotund comic knight; Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984. ix - xvi On the whole, he wrote about twenty books on Western literature, culture, myth, archetypal theory, religion and social thought. Archetypal Criticism - Northrop Frye - January 28, 2017 In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature, as well as in myths, dreams, and even social rituals. This heuristic distinction was formed, however, solely on psychobiographical grounds: Did the text originate in, and remain principally shaped by, the author’s experience of consciousness and the personal unconscious or his or her experience at the level of the archetypal collective unconscious? Indeed, myth criticism seems singularly unaffected by any of the archetypal theorists who have remained faithful to the origins and traditions of depth, especially analytical, psychology—James Hillman, Henri Corbin, Gilbert Durand, Rafael Lopez-Pedraza, Evangelos Christou. Northrop Fry was a Canadian critics or theorist.Archetypal Means like: Arche “first” and typos “form” An original model or pattern from which copies are made. The concept of Archetypes in literature has been the subject of extensive examination in Literary Criticism. James Hillman, Archetypal Psychology: A Brief Account (1983), Re-Visioning Psychology (1975); C. G. Jung, Collected Works (ed. (Diagram of his wheel in Anatomy of Criticism ), Archetypes fall into two major categories: characters, situations/symbols. ARCHETYPES OF LITERATURE-- NORTHROP FRYE--Criticism & Theory ARCHETYPES OF LTERATURE. Athurian Legends, , bring Helen back to Troy, Kurukshetra’s battle for Arjun, Savitri…) The concept of the archetype is a venerable philosophical principle that came into new prominence and usage in the twentieth century with the development of archetypal literary criticism through the theories of psychologist C. G. Jung and literary theorist Northrop Frye. 1445 - 1457 Frye, then, first misinterprets Jungian theory by insisting on a Lamarckian view of genetic transmission of archetypes, which Jung explicitly rejected, and later settles on a concept of “archetype” as a literary occurrence per se, an exclusively intertextual recurring phenomenon resembling a convention (99). This page was last modified on 17 June 2009, at 00:21. A few names form a core of writers in English (including many Canadians)—Martin Bickman, Albert Gelpi, Elliott Gose, Evelyn Hinz, Henry Murray, Barton L. St. Armand, Harold Schechter, and William Stein— though no single figure has attracted the attention of academic literary specialists, and no persistent commonalities fuse into a recognizable school critics who draw on Jung’s theories. (Hamlet, Macbeth, Tom Jones, Moll, … ) plot forms, or organizing structural principles), correspondent to the four seasons in the cycle of the natural world, are incorporated in the four major genres of comedy (spring), romance (summer), tragedy (autumn), and satire (winter). 1: 67), of the “archetypes,” which he described as patterns of psychic energy originating in the collective unconscious and finding their “most common and most normal” manifestation in dreams (8:287). Black: darkness, chaos, mystery, the unknown, death, wisdom, evil, melancholy. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. But the great literary text for Jung’s life and work was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust, not because of its literary qualities but because he sensed that the drama expressed his own personal myth (Letters 1:309-10). Joseph P. Strelka, 1976); Karin Barnaby and Pellegrino D’Acerino, eds., C. G. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture (1990); Martin Bickman, The Unsounded Centre: Jungian Studies in American Romanticism (1980); Maud Bodkin, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies in Imagination (1934); Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (1957); Albert Gelpi, The Tenth Muse: The Psyche of the American Poet (1975); Naomi Goldenberg, “Archetypal Theory after Jung,” Spring (1975); Julia Kristeva, “Stabat Mater” (1977, The Kristeva Reader, ed. And new theories increasingly give credence to the requirement, historically asserted by Jungian readers, that each text elicit a personal, affective, and not “merely intellectual” response. Seasons: Jung on Mythology. Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, and Gerhard Adler, 20 vois., 1953-79), Letters (trans. William Shakespeare is known for creating many archetypal characters that hold great social importance in his native land, such as Northrop Frye, Simulation, and the Creation of a "Human World": http://www.transparencynow.com/introfry2.htm. To date, the British Journal of Analytical Psychology and the retitled American Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture are the best resources for archetypal criticism of literature and the arts even though only a small percentage of their published articles treat such topics. Romeo and Juliet, the ill-fated ("star-crossed") lovers; Desert: spiritual aridity; death; hopelessness. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. How do contemporary critics view Frye’s archetypal criticism? Léon S. Roudiez, 1986); Estella Lauter and Carol Schreier Rupprecht, Feminist Archetypal Theory: Interdisciplinary Re-Visions of Jungian Thought (1985); Erich Neumann, Art and the Creative Unconscious: Four Essays (trans. Rising sun: birth, creation, enlightenment. In the 2010s, archetypal literary criticism is no longer widely practiced; there have not been any major recent developments in the field (with the possible exception of biblical literary criticism), but it still has a place in the tradition of literary studies. [Moll, Tess, Tom, Jude, …] For instance Beckett’s Waiting For Godot is considered a tragicomedy, a play with elements of tragedy and satire, with the implication that interpreting textual elements in the play becomes difficult as the two opposing seasons and conventions that Frye associated with genres are pitted against each other. As Hillman puts it, Corbin’s insight that Jung’s “mundus archetypalis” is also the “mundus imaginalis” that corresponds to the Islamic “alam al-mithl” (3) was an early move toward “a reappraisal of psychology itself as an activity of poesis” (24). From the theorists, dissertations, articles, and books, often traditionally academic in orientation, appeared; the productions of the practitioners are chronicled and critiqued in van Meurs’s bibliography. 6. Books For Jung, “archetype is an explanatory paraphrase of the Platonic eidos” (9, pt. Hamlet, the self-doubting hero and the initiation archetype with the three stages of separation, transformation, and return; Though he is dismissive of Frazer, Frye uses the seasons in his archetypal schema. In Re-Visioning Psychology, the published text of his 1972 Yale Terry Lectures (the same lecture series Jung gave in 1937), Hillman locates the archetypal neither “in the physiology of the brain, the structure of language, the organization of society, nor the analysis of behavior, but in the processes of imagination” (xi). How archetypes came to be was also of no concern to Frye; rather, the function and effect of archetypes is his interest. In addition, many powerfully heuristic Jungian concepts, such as “synchronicity,” have yet to be tested in literary contexts. Ironically, as in the feminist revisioning of explicitly male-biased Jungian theory, the rise in the 1980s of Reader-response theory and criticism and the impetus for canon revision have begun to contribute to a revaluation of Jung as a source of literary study. 5. 1442 - 1445 If it is to be related to the sciences too, it does not follow that it must be deprived of the graces of culture. Feminist archetypal theory, proceeding inductively, restored Jung’s original emphasis on the fluid, dynamic nature of the archetype, drawing on earlier feminist theory as well as the work of Jungian Erich Neumann to reject absolutist, ahistorical, essentialist, and transcendentalist misinterpretations. For Frye, as William K. Wimsatt and Cleanth Brooks put it, “archetype, borrowed from Jung, means a primordial image, a part of the collective unconscious, the psychic residue of numberless experiences of the same kind, and thus part of the inherited response-pattern of the race” (Literary Criticism 709). Example: Christian's quest for salvation in John Bunyan's "The Pilgrim's Progress". Jung was also more preoccupied with dreams and fantasies, because he saw them as exclusively (purely) products of the unconscious, in contrast to literature, which he oddly believed, citing Joyce’s Ulysses as an example, was created “in the full light of consciousness” (15:123). Like works of literature, criticism is also creative and an archetypal critic discovers the meaning of a text and the motives of a character. Fall - death/dying; genre/tragedy. • Northrop Frye developed a theory of literature based on myths and archetypes. Spring - rebirth; genre/comedy. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Frye, Northrop. Given this background, it is not surprising to find in a 1976 essay entitled “Jungian Psychology in Criticism: Theoretical Problems” the statement that “no purely Jungian criticism of literature has yet appeared” (Baird 22). Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957. Ed. Thus criticism evolving from his work is more accurately named “archetypal” and is quite distinct from “myth” criticism. Example: Romeo and Juliet from William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet". Vincent B. Leitch. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays is a book by Canadian literary critic and theorist Northrop Frye that attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. Vincent B. Leitch. 223 - 225 Frye frequently acknowledged his debt to Jung, accepted some of Jung’s specifically named archetypes—” persona and anima and counsellor and shadow” —and referred to his theory as Jungian criticism (Anatomy 291), a practice subsequently followed in some hand books of literary terms and histories of literary criticism, including one edited by Frye himself, which obscured crucial differences and contributed to the confusion in terminology reigning today. Each season is aligned with a literary genre: comedy with spring, romance with summer, tragedy with autumn, and satire with winter. Though Archetypal literary criticism no longer widely did not practice nor have there been any major developments in the field, it … Although Shakespeare based many of his characters on existing archetypes from fables and myths (e.g., Romeo and Juliet on Pyramus and Thisbe), Shakespeare's characters stand out as original by their contrast against a complex, social literary landscape. We can only learn about literature. Both of these are likely derived from priesthood authority archetypes, such as Celtic Druids, or perhaps Biblical figures like Abraham, Moses, etc. 3 - light, spiritual awareness, unity (the Holy Trinity); male principle. For Frye, the death-rebirth myth that Frazer sees manifest in agriculture and the harvest is not ritualistic since it is involuntary, and therefore, must be done. It was not until the work of the Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye that archetypal criticism was theorized in purely literary terms. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archetypal_literary_criticism", Resources Example: Simon from William Golding's "The Lord of the Flies". Ralph Manheim, 1974); Morris Philipson, Outline of a Jungian Aesthetic (1963, reprint, 1991); Annis Pratt et al., Archetypal Patterns in Women’s Fiction (1981); Jos van Meurs and John Kidd, Jungian Literary Criticism, 1920-1980: An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Works in English (with a Selection of Titles after 1980) (1988); William K. Wimsatt, Jr., and Cleanth Brooks, Literary Criticism: A Short History (1957). The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. 3. Have with You to Madison Avenue or The Flush-Profile of Literature by Marshall McLuhan [Review of Northrop Frye’s 1957 Anatomy of Criticism] 1 It is natural for the literary man to underestimate the relevance of Professor Frye’s archetypal approach to literature. 1. Thus, with the archetypal theorists multiplying across disciplines on the one hand and the clinically practicing followers serving as (generally inadequate) critics on the other, archetypal literary theory and criticism flourished in two independent streams in the 1960s and 1970s. . The Journey: A narrative archetype where the protagonist must overcome a series of obstacles before reaching his or her goal. (April is the cruelest month…) • Comedy is aligned with spring because the genre of comedy is characterized by the birth of the hero, revival and resurrection. Archetypal criticism moved into the sphere of literary analysis following Maud Bodkin's groundbreaking Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934). Source: Groden, Michael, and Martin Kreiswirth. • Cities, temples, or precious stones represent the comedic mineral realm. This last text explicitly named the movement and demonstrated its appropriation of archetypal theory for feminist ends in aesthetics, analysis, art, and religion, as well as in literature. Introduction Northrop Frye, working in the field of literature, defined an archetype as a symbol, usually an image, which recurs often enough in literature to be recognizable as an element of one’s literary experience as a whole. • Frye, Northrop. A Jungian Approach to Literature. An important antecedent f the literary theory of the archetype was the treatment of myth by a group of comparative anthropologists at Cambridge University, especially James G. Frazer, whose The Golden Bough (1890-1915) identified elemental patterns of myth and ritual that , claimed, recur in the legends and ceremonials of diverse and far-flung cultures ad religions. The critical annotations are astute and, given their brevity, surprisingly thorough and suggestive. Archetypal theory then took shape principally in the multidisciplinary journal refounded by Hillman in 1970 in Zurich, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought. • The loss of innocence - This is, as the name implies, a loss of innocence through sexual experience, violence, or any other means. Apart from him, the other prominent practitioners of various modes of archetypal criticism were G. Wilson Knight, Robert Graves, Philip Wheelwright, Richard Chase, Leslie Fiedler, and Joseph Campbell. The outcast figure can oftentimes also be considered as a Christ figure. • Satire is metonymized with winter on the grounds that satire is a “dark” genre. This page has been accessed 23,131 times. What is Northrop Frye’s contribution to the archetypal criticism? This burgeoning theoretical movement and the generally unsatisfying nature of so much early “Jungian literary criticism” are both linked to the problematic nature of Jung’s own writing on literature, which comprises a handful of essays: “The Type Problem in Poetry,” “On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry,” “Psychology and Literature,” “Ulysses: A Monologue,” and “Is There a Freudian Type of Poetry?” These essays reveal Jung’s lack of awareness as a reader despite his sense that they “may show how ideas that play a considerable role in my work can be applied to literary material” (Collected 15:109^. Eliot’s Tradition and the Individual Talent, NTA UGC NET English June 2020 Questions and Answers. The scapegoat - The scapegoat figure is the one who gets blamed for everything, regardless of whether he or she is actually at fault. Anatomy of Criticism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy_of_Criticism, General Interest Dancing, riding, or flying: symbols of sexual pleasure. These critics tended to emphasize the occurrence of mythical patterns in literature, on the assumption that myths are closer t the elemental archetype than the artful manipulation of sophisticated writers. The shrew - This is that nagging, bothersome wife always battering her husband with verbal abuse. Certainly criticism as we find it in learned journals and scholarly • Animals in the comedic genres are docile and pastoral (e.g. But in fact, arguments about generic blends such as tragicomedy go back to the Renaissance, and Frye always conceived of genres as fluid. Frye proposed that the totality of literary works constitute a “self-contained literary universe” which has been created over the ages by the human imagination so as to assimilate the alien and indifferent world of nature into archetypal forms that serve to satisfy enduring human desires and needs. • The comedic human world is representative of wish-fulfillment and being community centered. [Tom Jones, Darcy in P&P (breaking of Lizzy’s sis’s relationship, elopement), Technology in BNW, Tess for death of Prince, giving birth to Sorrow, …] With the tragic, the seas, and especially floods, signify the water sphere. Red: blood, sacrifice, passion; disorder. Example: Dartagnon from Alexandre Dumas's "The Three Musketeers". New York: Norton, 2001. Frye’s work helped displace New Criticism as the major mode of analyzing literary texts, before giving way to structuralism and semiotics . It is easiest to understand them with the help of examples. New York: Norton, 2001. 1: 4), but he distinguishes his concept and use of the term from that of philosophical idealism as being more empirical and less metaphysical, though most of his “empirical” data were dreams. Her Jungian Approach to Literature attempts to cover the Finnish epic The Kalevala, the Persian Atar’s The Conference of the Birds, and texts by Euripides, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Michel de Montaigne, Pierre Corneille, Goethe, Novalis, Rabbi ben Simhah Nachman, and W. B. Yeats. White: light, purity, innocence, timelessness; [negative: death, terror, supernatural] Green: growth, hope, fertility. Frye’s thesis in “The Archetypes of Literature” remains largely unchanged in Anatomy of Criticism. Northrop Frye. Vincent B. Leitch. • Rivers: death and rebirth (baptism); the flowing of time into eternity; transitional phases of the life cycle. NORTHROP FRYE Archetypes of Literature: The 4 Seasons The archetypes are symbols that re-occur in literature. "The Archetypes of Literature." (If winter has come, can spring be far behind?) Creation: All cultures believe the Cosmos was brought into existence by some Supernatural Being (or Beings). Fort Worth: HBJ, 1993. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Hillman also discovers archetypal precursors in Neoplatonism, Heraclitus, Plotinus, Proclus, Marsilio Ficino, and Giambattista Vico. It is noted for its darkness, dissolution, the return of chaos, and the defeat of the heroic figure. R. F. C. Hull, 2 vois., 1973-75). This way of proceeding had the effect of putting, and keeping, archetypal criticism on the margins of academic discourse and outside the boundaries of traditional academic disciplines and departments. While acknowledging the grave weaknesses of much Jungian writing on literature as “unsubtle and rigid application of preconceived psychological notions and schemes” resulting in “particularly ill-judged or distorted readings,” van Meurs still finds that “sensitively, flexibly and cautiously used, Jungian psychological theory may stimulate illuminating literary interpretations” (14-15). New York: Garland Publishing, 1995. . 4 - associated with the circle, life cycle, four seasons; earth, nature, elements. Garden: paradise, innocence, unspoiled beauty. Where is archetypal literary criticism manifested? Literaature Of the different approaches of literary criticism, Northrop Frye has established the validity of the archetypal approach and its relevance in the elucidation of a text. We cannot learn literature. ( Pandavs, Ram-Sita-laxman, Sugreve, Duke, Orlando, Rosalind in As You Like It, tramps in Godot, …) And the 1980s saw a new, suggestive, and controversial direction in archetypal studies of literature: the feminist. 4 Seasons represent variations of the 'Monomyth': Spring (Comedy) Summer (Romance) Autumn (Tragedy) Winter (Irony & Satire) The archetypes are related by the theme of Art and literature is the subject of study and criticism is study itself; study of literature. Who are pioneers of archetypal literary criticism? Criticism in … • He says literature is not reflection of life not expression of personality. The star-crossed lovers - This is the young couple joined by love but unexpectedly parted by fate. This article, then, treats the only form of literary theory and criticism consistent with and derived directly from the psychological principles advanced by Jung. Of the different approaches of literary criticism, Northrop Frye has established the validity of the archetypal approach and its relevance in the elucidation of a text. Issues of genre, period, and language were ignored or subjected to gross generalization as Jung searched for universals in texts as disparate as the fourth-century Shepherd of Hermas, the Divine Comedy, Francesco Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499), E. T. A. Hoffman’s tales, Pierre Benoit’s L’Atlantide (1919-20), and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s “Hiawatha,” as well as works by Carl Spitteler and William Blake. Satire is a disillusioned and mocking form of the three other genres. sheep), while animals are predatory and hunters in the tragic (e.g. Archetypal Criticism – Northrop Frye Summary. Another way of thinking about archetypes is to imagine that in some way it is possible to plot… Frazer’s and Jung’s texts formed the basis of two allied but ultimately different courses of influence on literary history. Archetypal literary criticism was given impetus by Maud Bodkin’s Archetypal Patterns in Poetry (1934) and flourished especially during the 150s and 1960s. Frye consciously omits all specific and practical criticism, instead offering classically inspired theories of modes, symbols, myths and genres, in what he termed "an … Such myths are the archetypes of comedy, pastoral and idyll. Van Meurs also does a service by resurrecting successful but neglected early studies, such as Elizabeth Drew’s of T. S. Eliot (1949), and discovering value even in reductionist and impressionistic studies, such as June Singer’s of Blake. ; or in the case of Gandalf, the Norse figure Odin. The outcast - The outcast is just that. • -- "Carl Gustav Jung." Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture. This explains his fascination with a text like Rider Haggard’s novel She: The History of an Adventure (1886-87), with its unmediated representation of the “anima.” As Jung himself noted: “Literary products of highly dubious merit are often of the greatest interest to the psychologist” (Collected 15:87-88). It is a strong life force, and is often depicted as a living, reasoning force. It has been argued that Frye’s version of archetypal criticism strictly categorizes works based on their genres, which determines how an archetype is to be interpreted in a text. In this literary universe, four radical mythoi (i.e. Eve from the story of Genesis or Pandora from Greek mythology are two such figures. Northrop Frye would later ensure that archetypal criticism remained in the forefront of literary analysis with his Anatomy of Criticism, published in 1957. There are two basic categories in Frye’s framework, i.e., comedic and tragic. For Frye, this "new poetics" is to be found in the principle of the mythological framework, which has come to be known as 'archetypal criticism'. Example: Frodo's task to keep the ring safe in J. R. R. Tolkein's "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy. Frye admits that his schema in “The Archetypes of Literature” is simplistic, but makes room for exceptions by noting that there are neutral archetypes. Frye thought literary forms were part of a great circle and were capable of shading into other generic forms. Further, the text offered confirmation (and poetic representation) of the only direct contribution Jung made to literary theory: a distinction between “psychological” and “visionary” texts (Collected 15:89-90). Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Situations/symbols: Setting sun: death. And despite frequently perceptive readings, the work is marred by the characteristic limitless expansionism and psychological utilitarianism of her interpretive scheme. Confirmation of this theory was Jung’s reading of Faust: part 1 was “psychological”; part 2, “visionary.”. An even more important antecedent was the depth psychology of Carl G. Jung(1875-1961), who applied the term “archetype” to what he called “primordial images”, the “psychic residue” of repeated patterns of experience in our very ancient ancestors which, he maintained, survive in the “collective unconscious” of the human race and are expressed in yths, religion, dreams, and private fantasies, as well as in works of literature. Further, Jung termed his own theory “analytical psychology,” as it is still known especially in Europe, but Jungian thought is more commonly referred to today in all disciplines as “archetypal psychology.”. As for the tragic, vegetation is of a wild forest, or as being barren. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. (Available in the UHS Library), The Northrop Frye International Literary Festival: http://www.northropfrye.com/home.htm • Leitch, Vincent B. With some of its advocates supported through early publication of their work in the journal Spring, feminist archetypal theory and criticism of literature and the arts emerged fullblown in three texts: Annis Pratt’s Archetypal Patterns in Women’s Fiction (1981), which self-consciously evoked and critiqued Maud Bodkin’s 1934 text; Estella Lauter’s Women as Mythmakers: Poetry and Visual Art by Twentieth Century Women (1984); and Estella Lauter and Carol Schreier Rupprecht’s Feminist Archetypal Theory: Interdisciplinary Re-Visions of Jungian Thought (1985). Frye uses the seasons in his schema: human, animal, vegetation, mineral, and.. 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The birth of the three Musketeers '' archetypal literary Criticism and Psychology (.... Snake, worm ): symbol of energy and pure force ( libido ;... One who 's always running in and saving the day also discovers precursors. It emerged from Greek religion centuries before based on myths and archetypes completing this quest M. ``! Its anthropological and psychoanalytical precursors tragic human world is representative of wish-fulfillment and being community centered he or she been. As the major mode of analyzing literary texts, before giving way structuralism. • Abrams, M. H. `` archetypal Criticism: Romeo and Juliet from William Golding 's `` the three ''... And Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984. ix - xvi • Leitch, B. Shading into other generic forms and tragic William 's `` Orpheus Descending '' this pattern demonstration of archetypal literary between! 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