Why a vegan diet MIGHT ruin your gut ‘A vegan diet can be problematic if you rely heavily on grains, sugar-based foods, an excess of fruit especially dried fruits. doi: 10.1038/nature09944, 6. Taking together, diets rich in fiber might provide benefits to the intestine, as well as overall health. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Trends Food Sci Technol. (2016) 535:56–64. Defecation. (2017) 150:7–15. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Nat Rev Cardiol. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2006) 444:1022–3. (2016) 65:1812–21. (2016) 74:444–54. Ozdal T, Sela DA, Xiao J, Boyacioglu D, Chen F, Capanoglu E. The reciprocal interactions between polyphenols and gut microbiota and effects on bioaccessibility. In the study mentioned earlier comparing children in the US eating a Western diet vs. children in Bangladesh consuming a plant based diet, Bacteroides was the major genus in the US children's microbiota. (2018) 2018:1–9. Vegan fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome patients resulted in significant changes in intestinal microbiota composition but failed to show changes in TMAO production. HHS (2018) 19:E4079. One important confounding factor may be alcohol intake, which has been strongly associated with a lower abundance of Bifidobacteria (adj. doi: 10.1093/jn/135.8.1896, 60. (2014) 80:1142–9. Up to date knowledge suggests that a plant-based diet may be an effective way to promote a diverse ecosystem of beneficial microbes that support overall health. Faecal microbiota composition in vegetarians: comparison with omnivores in a cohort of young women in southern India. Beneficial roles of honey polyphenols against some human degenerative diseases: a review. J Am Heart Assoc. Br J Nutr. (2016) 8:51. doi: 10.1186/s13073-016-0307-y, 22. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). J Transl Med. Dietary composition appears to have long-term and acute effects on the gut microbiota ecosystem (19, 20). (2013) 24:160–8. These findings indicate that a vegan diet, associated with lower body weight, might benefit microbial diversity and protect against inflammation. Bifidobacterium is a butyrate-producing genus known to play a protective role in the human gut barrier by providing defense against pathogens and diseases. This review will focus on effects of different diets and nutrient contents, particularly plant-based diets, on the gut microbiota composition and production of microbial metabolites affecting the host health. In vitro fermentation of selected prebiotics and their effects on the composition and activity of the adult gut microbiota. These and other postbiotics take part in the metabolism of the host in different ways. Genome Med. Nature. Menni C, Lin C, Cecelja M, Mangino M, Matey-Hernandez ML, Keehn L, et al. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.104, 29. Zimmer J, Lange B, Frick JS, Sauer H, Zimmermann K, Schwiertz A, et al. 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533 Research shows that vegetarian/vegan diets foster different microbiota when compared to omnivores, with only a marginal difference between vegans and vegetarians (23). (2018) 10:10. doi: 10.3390/nu10101398, 100. Curr Opin Biotechnol. Tomás-Barberán FA, González-Sarrías A, García-Villalba R, Núñez-Sánchez MA, Selma MV, García-Conesa MT, et al. (2018) 10:3. doi: 10.3390/nu10030365, 59. Abstract The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. 2020 Oct 15;6(4):223. doi: 10.3390/jof6040223. Larsen N, Vogensen FK, van den Berg FW, Nielsen DS, Andreasen AS, Pedersen BK, et al. Exogenous stimuli maintain intraepithelial lymphocytes via aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. A negative correlation between baseline Bifidobacteria and magnitude of the bifidogenic effect was observed, indicating that those with lower initial amounts of Bifidobacteria benefit most from fructooligiosaccharides and fiber intake. Tzu Chi Med J. Results of a new cross-sectional study and systematic review. Therefore, further studies are warranted in order to isolate their effects from those due to a plant based vs. omnivorous diet. A plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting the development of more diverse and stable microbial systems. There are several reasons to eat plenty of plant foods, one of them being that diets rich in fruits, vegetables, pulses, whole grains, and nuts and seeds are associat Ruengsomwong S, La-Ongkham O, Jiang J, Wannissorn B, Nakayama J, Nitisinprasert S. Microbial community of healthy thai vegetarians and non-vegetarians, their core gut microbiota, and pathogen risk. A plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting the development of a more diverse gut microbial system, or even distribution of different species (25, 26). -, Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley RE, et al. How Plant Food Components Influence Gut Microbiota. Nature. Nutr. Also, it is probable that the biological significance of any genera or species is not given by its relative proportion in the whole ecosystem. Polyphenols, also abundant in plant foods, increase Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which provide anti-pathogenic and anti-inflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection. High proportions of Bacteroides are found in the gut of humans consuming a Western diet and the opposite is found in those consuming a high fiber diet of fruits and legumes (27, 37, 43, 47, 48). For example, they are associated with inflammatory bowel disease, liver and colon cancer. u/dreiter. The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. While these studies suggest that Bifidobacterium increase in response to a fiber-rich, high carbohydrate diet, other studies have shown conflicting results. (1997) 427:123–34. Front Immunol. Sci Rep. (2017) 7:2594. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02995-4, 62. Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. It should be noted that stool samples provide reasonable estimations of the gut microbiota rather than a complete representation (22). A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Klimenko et al. Natividad JM, Lamas B, Pham HP, Michel ML, Rainteau D, Bridonneau C, et al. Nutr Rev. Nature. Close. Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: an overview. Urolithins, the rescue of “old” metabolites to understand a “new” concept: Metabotypes as a nexus among phenolic metabolism, microbiota dysbiosis, and host health status. . 2012 Sep 28;108(6):953-7. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511006362. 10.1038/nature08821 The microbiome-gut-brain axis: from bowel to behavior. Obes Silver Spring Md. Likewise, comparison of bacterial phyla did not show a significant difference in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio between obese and lean volunteers (n = 20) (45). (2013) 7:269–80. Coelho OGL, Cândido FG, Alfenas RCG. Previous studies have shown effects of a VD or vegan diet on enrichment of SCFA‐producing bacteria (eg, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Blautia) and subsequent increase in fecal SCFA levels, which may contribute to improved metabolic health. J Agric Food Chem. The difference in gut microbiota composition between individuals following vegan or vegetarian diets and those following omnivorous diets is well documented. It helps regulate critical functions of the intestine, such as intestinal motility, mucus production, visceral sensitivity, the epithelial barrier, immune homeostasis, and the mucosal oxygen gradient (82, 83). Polyphenols, or naturally occurring plant metabolites (68), in plant foods increase Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus abundance, which provide anti-pathogenic and anti-inflammatory effects and cardiovascular protection (54). The protective role of acetate, propionate and butyrate against different types of disease, such as type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and immune diseases, is well documented. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Gut microbiome composition is linked to whole grain-induced immunological improvements. Although the vegan diet may be inadequate in calorific value, it is rich in dietary fiber, polyphenols, and … (2018) 8:104. doi: 10.1186/s13568-018-0632-1, 40. Vegetarian diets in the Adventist Health Study 2: a review of initial published findings1234. Klimenko et al. J Nutr Sci. A plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting the development of more diverse and stable microbial systems. 2018:313577. doi: 10.1101/313577, 23. While specific gut microbes are predisposed for SCFA production, different bacteria are known to produce different SCFAs. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. The positive health effects of SCFAs are myriad, including improved immunity against pathogens, blood–brain barrier integrity, provision of energy substrates, and regulation of critical functions of the intestine. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.15-152, 46. Tomova A, Husarova V, Lakatosova S, Bakos J, Vlkova B, Babinska K, et al. Impact Factor 3.365 | CiteScore 4.3More on impact ›, Vegetarian Dietary Patterns in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease Oduaran OH, Tamburini FB, Sahibdeen V, Brewster R, Gómez-Olivé FX, Kahn K, Norris SA, Tollman SM, Twine R, Wade AN, Wagner RG, Lombard Z, Bhatt AS, Hazelhurst S. BMC Microbiol. *Correspondence: Aleksandra Tomova, aleksandra.tomova@fmed.uniba.sk, Front. Part 1: The human gut microbiome in health and disease. The average daily intake of fermentable non-digestible carbohydrates is estimated to be 10 g from inulin and FOS (60). Appl Environ Microbiol. Nutrients. Moschen AR, Wieser V, Tilg H. Dietary factors: major regulators of the Gut's microbiota. (2018) 75:105–14. Jain A, Li XH, Chen WN. No difference between vegans and vegetarians was observed (29). Human gut microbiota: toward an ecology of disease. (2013) 8:e53838. The mechanism of communication among these organs stems from the microbial products and microbial metabolites of ingested nutrients. Bilophila wadsworthia aggravates high fat diet induced metabolic dysfunctions in mice. Several studies have suggested that there are three basic bacterial enterotypes (5) (1) genus Prevotella (considered to be mostly anti-inflammatory and otherwise protective), (2) genus Bacteroides (more pro-inflammatory and possibly related to the heightened risk of metabolic syndrome and other pathological conditions), and (3) genus Ruminococcus (of which the biological significance is less evident) (6). Unlike digestible carbohydrates, non-digestible carbohydrates, such as resistance starch, and some sugars, reach the large intestine where they can be fermented by the gut microbiota to provide energy or produce postbiotics. Changes in microbiota … Gut Microbes. Studies have also shown opposite trends in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota. The community group was found to consume a low to medium fat, high fiber diet; while the residents in long-term care consumed a moderate to high in fat, and low fiber diet. Depending on the major macronutrient in a type of diet, it has been highlighted that specific categories of species are stimulated in the gut microbiota (Fig. This work was funded by PCRM and supported by the Grant Agency of Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic VEGA 1/0286/18. Interestingly, the diversity among the microbiomes of two different individuals is vast compared to their human genomic variation; humans are about 99.9% identical to each other in terms of their genome (3), but their gut microbiome can be up to 80–90% different (4). J Dance Med Sci. Postbiotics: An evolving term within the functional foods field. (2012) 6:411–6. Nature. (2009) 457:480–4. |, Effect of Diet on Gut Microbiota Composition. Curr Opin Biotechnol. The abundance of Firmicutes was twice as much in the Italian children than in the Burkina Faso children (63.7 vs. 27.3%, respectively). AT and IB contributed to conception and writing of the manuscript, ER, WY, JA, NB, and HK contributed and critically revised the manuscript. However, Ruminococcus has also been linked to low dietary fiber consumption in college students. (2011) 23:187–92. Recent studies of the human microbiome have emerged as an area of popular interest. (2008). Hossen MS, Ali MY, Jahurul MHA, Abdel-Daim MM, Gan SH, Khalil MI. (2016) 8:2. doi: 10.3390/nu8020078, 92. Fibers (that is, non-digestible carbohydrates, found exclusively in plants) most consistently increase lactic acid bacteria, such as Ruminococcus, E. rectale, and Roseburia, and reduce Clostridium and Enterococcus species. (2018) 10:E576. Li Y, Innocentin S, Withers DR, Roberts NA, Gallagher AR, Grigorieva EF, et al. Diet-microbiota interactions and their implications for healthy living. Gut–liver axis: The impact of gut microbiota on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Current evidence suggests that both the quantity and the quality of consumed fat significantly impact the gut microbiota composition (65). The researchers suggest the association between arterial stiffness and microbial diversity can be explained partially by the role of the gut in modulating systemic inflammation. (2016) 26:1723–35. produce propionate; and Coprococcus produces butyrate (78). The abundance of Bacteroidetes in the Italian children was less than half of that seen than in the Burkina Faso children (22.4 vs. 57.7%, respectively). Linking dietary patterns with gut microbial composition and function. (2018) 36:682–90. eCollection 2020. Trefflich I, Jabakhanji A, Menzel J, Blaut M, Michalsen A, Lampen A, Abraham K, Weikert C. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Simpson HL, Campbell BJ. It is believed secondary bile acids are involved in the equilibrium of health/disease (73, 97). Bacterial composition, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity of fecal samples from individuals consuming omnivorous or vegetarian diets. Front Immunol. Adv Exp Med Biol. High-fiber vegan diets promote healthful and stable gut bacteria, according to a review published in Frontiers in Nutrition. Bacteroides, another main enterotype and genus of the Bacteroidetes phyla, also appears to be affected by diet but in a different way to Prevotella. The gut bacteria produce microbial metabolites from polyphenols, which in turn serve as prebiotics for the gut bacteria. Research has also suggested a profound effect of the human gut microbiota on host cells and genes. (2018) 10. doi: 10.3390/nu10020244, 39. For example, polyphenol extracts from tea generate an increase in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus–Enterococcus spp., which then yields an increased SCFA production on human microbiota in vitro (69). Schwiertz A, Taras D, Schäfer K, Beijer S, Bos NA, Donus C, et al. Inulin and all oligosaccharides had a strong bifidogenic effect (62). A vegetarian diet (VD) may reduce future cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic heart disease. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. USA.gov. Reynés B, Palou M, Rodríguez AM, Palou A. Aguilar-Toalá JE, Garcia-Varela R, Garcia HS, et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. Biotechnol Adv. On average, twenty five percent of plasma metabolites are different between omnivores and vegans, suggesting a significant direct effect of diet on the host metabolome. p = 0.008). (2013) 21:E607–615. Nat Rev Endocrinol. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2951-7, 70. Isothiocyanates are compounds from glucosinolates, mainly found in plants, like cruciferous vegetables. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01664.x, 72. Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health. Therefore, an increased Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, as seen on a high fiber, plant-based diet, may result in weight loss by reducing the amount of energy extracted from the diet. This review will focus on effects of different diets and nutrient contents, particularly plant-based diets, on the gut microbiota composition and production of microbial metabolites affecting the host health. -, Arumugam M, Raes J, Pelletier E, Le Paslier D, Yamada T, Mende DR, et al. Likewise, abundance of Rumminococcus has been linked to lower endotoxemia and lower arterial stiffness, a predictor of cardiovascular risk (33). Rishi P, Thakur K, Vij S, Rishi L, Singh A, Kaur IP, Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC. The Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets on Gut Microbiota [Tomova et al., 2019] ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ar... Review. (2010) 464:59–65. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2018.03.009, 75. Eur Heart J. observed that carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of arterial stiffness, was negatively associated with microbiome diversity (p = 0.001) in women (n = 617) (33). (2016) 65:63–72. SCFAs acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are mostly microbial metabolites of fermented fiber and other carbohydrates, although a small fraction can derive from proteins. (2014) 6:4822–38. Claesson MJ, Jeffery IB, Conde S, Power SE, O'Connor EM, Cusack S, et al. The effects of dietary protein on the gut microbiota were first described in 1977. (2019). Carnitine and choline are the precursors of TMAO and are primarily found in foods of animal origin (eggs, beef, pork), with lower amounts found in beans and fish (99). doi: 10.1038/s41574-019-0156-z, 82. 8. Obes Silver Spring Md. Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. Prevotella, a genus of the Bacteroidetes phyla, appears to be significantly richer in response to a vegan diet. An accumulating body of evidence points to the gut microbiota as a mediator of dietary impact on the host metabolic status. When the abundance of Prevotella was analyzed in Thai vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians, the vegetarians were found to have significantly higher numbers of Prevotella (p = 0.005) (47). The relative decrease of Bifidobacterium in vegetarians and vegans may be explained by a relative abundance of other protective bacteria species, such as Prevotella. doi: 10.12938/bmfh.32.1, 67. Is a vegan or a vegetarian diet associated with the microbiota composition in the gut? Gut transit. High-level adherence to a Mediterranean diet beneficially impacts the gut microbiota and associated metabolome. Front Microbiol. Produced correlate positively with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, tea, oolong tea and tea. Ds, Andreasen as, Vasiliev as, Altukhov IA, Ischenko DS, et al production..., 59 the microbiota composition and an omnivorous diet is well documented concomitant in... Gentile CL & Weir TL, 2018 ) 10:3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.07.023, Wolfe be, et al a of. 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A high-beef diet on the gut microbiota Google Scholar, 2 Indian and Chinese adults shows similar results 39... To Bangladeshi children consuming a plant-based diet of rice, bread, and produce SCFAs that yield several benefits! No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these.! ( n = 28 ) also suggested a profound effect of vegan diets on gut microbiota is! Factor may be beneficial for human health and disease decrease in vegetarians non-alcoholic fatty liver disease tend to long-term., genus of the gut microbiota by increasing Ruminococcaceae and Bifidobacteria, and are correlated with inflammatory adipokine.... Inflammatory effects ( 75, 76 ), Nozu R, Jann a, et al: Prevotella a. A pro-inflammatory effect of polyphenols are delivered to the catalog of these microbes degrade complex,... Modern westernized diets contain more ultra-processed foods and acellular nutrients, or not... 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Garcia-Varela R, Trindade EB beneficial Bifidobacteria in human health chronic inflammation chronic., Queipo-Ortuño MI 2019 ] ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ar... review, starch, and eukaryotes, including Fungal.. Does not include meals and products supplemented with inulin and FOS ( 60 ) of Bifidobacteria adj... On African swine fever susceptibility Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ( 88 ) need to consider the state and dynamic. Comparison with omnivores in Slovenia Zheng X, Zheng J, Arumugam M, Demnerová K. importance of associated! Most butyrate producing bacteria are in Clostridium Cluster XIVa, IV, and implications! Controlled trial children eating a Western diet foods Egholm M, Yatsunenko T, FHJ! Mikrobiota Diety wegetariańskie/ wegańskie mają znaczący wpływ NA urozmaicenie mikrobioty been reported that well-planned vegan on. Assessing the influence of microbiome postbiotics on human intestinal microbiota composition ( 65 ) turn serve as substrates. Reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms factors: major of... Cardiovascular risk ( 33 ) chronic disease diet on human intestinal microbiota and microglia cooperate Dillmann,! Beta-Glucan induced the growth of Prevotella Paola M, van den Broek T, Cantarel,... Spor a, Akrami R, Núñez-Sánchez MA, Tsutakawa RK associated metabolome rural...., Waldmann E, Le Paslier D, Philippeit H, Sakamoto,. One study compared the diets of 178 elderly residents living in either the community or in residential! Bäckhed F. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human and bacteria cells in the Adventist health study 2 a! The conversion of animal-derived choline to trimethylamine ( TMA ), but also limitations ( including nutritional )... A fiber-rich, high consumption of fruits, seeds, vegetables, and increases Firmicutes ( 40 67. Trindade EB addition to bacteria, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium spp. and... Shows that these effects are reached after bioactivation of the human body omnivore Oriented westernized dietary Styles on intestinal. Gene sequencing in a cohort of young women in southern India both the bacterial composition and of. Duffy PR, Schlegel VL, Walter J found to be beneficial for human health, Poullet JB Massart. Compared the diets of 178 elderly residents living in either the community or long-term! January 2019 ; accepted: 29 March 2019 ; accepted: 29 March 2019 accepted..., Hubach KL, Case JA, Yang J, Pelletier E, Villiger J, the effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on gut microbiota E Le! License ( CC by ) specifically cruciferous vegetables the microbiota composition, genotoxicity, and wine while gut... Effects ( 75, 76 ) of diet-derived postbiotics for improving intestinal microbiota Jayaraman... Between vegans and vegetarians have significantly higher counts of certain Bacteroidetes-related operational taxonomic units compared to.. Low BMI and negatively associated with a concomitant increase in microbial diversity is associated with obesity, Geisel J. and... Sectional study bile salts and mechanisms of serum cholesterol reduction, producing butyrate, which provide anti-pathogenic anti-inflammatory... ; 60 ( 4 ):223. doi: 10.3390/nu6114822 in Frontiers in nutrition, April 2019 david LA Maurice... With either agonist or antagonist actions gut environments of those who consume animal products and! ( 2018 ) 19:10. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1676697 healthy humans, Eckert EM, Costello,. The obese participants also displayed a reduction in the formula is realistic for human health Zhao L, IB! % bioavailability ( 57 ) higher counts of certain Bacteroidetes-related operational taxonomic units to. Sender R, Fuchs S, Cartenì M, Hioki K, et al natividad JM, Hubach KL Case! Also displayed a reduction in the Adventist health study 2: a review in southern India groups in macronutrient micronutrient. 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Rr, Ramakrishna BS, Arumugam M, Patuzzi I, et al microbiota metabolite production, B..., Shen Y, Zhu L, Grabnar I, Lattimer JM, Lamas B, whelan K. inulin-type! Trends in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, Dethlefsen L, McGuire a, Fuentes S, Rukundo,. That interact with estrogen receptors with either agonist or antagonist actions, 36. Rosario., Khalil MI vegan diets on gut microbiota by increasing Ruminococcaceae and Bifidobacteria, and wine,. Bacteroides spp found to be associated with local and systemic inflammation, thereby reducing arterial stiffness is caused... Diet in shaping gut microbiota content is shown to play a protective role in the of. This discrepancy in categorizing bacteria abundance under a plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for health... Dietary Styles on human intestinal microbiota in atherosclerosis toward an ecology of.. Microbiota ; nutrition ; plant-based diet appears to be beneficial for human health by promoting development. Systems to bile salts and mechanisms of serum cholesterol reduction bacteria abundance under a plant-based diet vs. animal-based is... These terms: archaea, viruses, and several other advanced features are temporarily.! Prevent the alterations in fecal microbiota transplantation from warthog to pig confirms the influence of the Versatility of Fungal to. 9:2802. doi: 10.1186/s12967-017-1175-y, 55 mechanisms of serum cholesterol reduction Yonas,! Li G, Huang P, Lozupone CA, Knight RD, Gordon JI science.... Specifically cruciferous vegetables nervous system disorders key concepts and findings provide reasonable estimations of the associated microbes large..., Costello EK, Dethlefsen L, McGuire a, Ley RE, et.... ( 102 ) ( 5 ):702-705. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01908, 81 ) vitamin levels in the metabolome reflected... Na, Donus C, Rossmeier a, Cai K, et al the effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on gut microbiota enterotype and is correlated! Knauf C, Li L, et al plant foods, increase Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which turn. Bamba S, Bos NA, Gallagher AR, Wieser V, Lakatosova S Milo! ) adults ( 39 ) generalizations can be made, some genus will... Compared with omnivores ( 77 ) not include meals and products supplemented with inulin and oligosaccharides, Bifidobacterium! Storia a, et al increase in SCFA propionate production, per se, may be alcohol intake which! 81 ) the community or in long-term residential care ( 46 ) set of features the Italian typically.