During the life, and with the approval of this council, Eugenius IV issued several Bulls, or decrees, with a view to restore the Oriental schismatic bodies to communion with Rome, and according to the common teaching of theologians these documents are infallible statements of doctrine. Some of these writings have been cited as scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament to the 27 books of the modern canon. Some accept only portions of the Standard Works. [62], Before the Protestant Reformation, there was the Council of Florence (1439–1443). These books were grouped together by God’s people relatively early, with the OT being settled and stable by the birth of Jesus at latest, and the NT gaining … The Book of Abraham is rejected as scripture, as are the other portions of the Pearl of Great Price that do not appear in the Inspired Version of the Bible. Daniel was written several hundred years after the time of Ezra, and since that time several books of the Septuagint have been found in the original Hebrew, in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Cairo Geniza, and at Masada, including a Hebrew text of Sirach (Qumran, Masada) and an Aramaic text of Tobit (Qumran); the additions to Esther and Daniel are also in their respective Semitic languages. [100] However, it was left-out of the Peshitta and ultimately excluded from the canon altogether. This is because dogma is usually not declared unless first challenged seriously. Martin Luther (1483–1546) moved seven Old Testament books (Tobit, Judith, 1–2 Maccabees, Book of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch) into a section he called the "Apocrypha, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read". The three books of Meqabyan are often called the "Ethiopian Maccabees", but are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees that are known or have been canonized in other traditions. The council also confirmed the inclusion of the Deuterocanonical books which had been a part of the Bible canon since the early Church and was confirmed at the councils of 393 AD, 373, 787 and 1442 AD. The list of Sacred Scripture is put down dogmatically in the Council of Trent, which followed the Protestant Reformation. [76]The Thirty-Nine Articles, issued by the Church of England in 1563, names the books of the Old Testament, but not the New Testament. The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making sharp delineations with regard to the canon. There is some uncertainty about which was written first. The first “canon” was the Muratorian Canon, which was compiled in AD 170. The latter three patriarchal testaments are distinct to this scriptural tradition. Like the aforementioned Bickertonites, the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) rejects the Doctrine and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price, as well as the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, preferring to use only the King James Bible and the Book of Mormon as doctrinal standards. Another set of books, largely written during the intertestamental period, are called the biblical apocrypha ("hidden things") by Protestants, the deuterocanon ("second canon") by Catholics, and the deuterocanon or anagignoskomena ("worthy of reading") by Orthodox. The growth and development of the Armenian Biblical canon is complex. The Orthodox Tewahedo churches recognize these eight additional New Testament books in its broader canon. [19] Comparisons have also been made between the Samaritan Torah and the Septuagint version. Other portions of The Pearl of Great Price, however, are not considered to be scriptural—though are not necessarily fully rejected either. Augustine of Hippo declared without qualification that one is to "prefer those that are received by all Catholic Churches to those which some of them do not receive" (On Christian Doctrines 2.12). This canon remained undisturbed till the sixteenth century, and was sanctioned by the council of Trent at its fourth session. "The Abisha Scroll – 3,000 Years Old?". Yet many extra-biblical texts, claiming to be Scripture, argue that Jesus is not God. Title: Microsoft Word - bible - how was the canon established - gotquestions.org.doc Author: Brittany Anthes Created Date: 12/7/2011 6:33:22 PM The standard United Bible Societies 1905 edition of the New Testament of the Peshitta was based on editions prepared by Syriacists Philip E. Pusey (d.1880), George Gwilliam (d.1914) and John Gwyn. Athanasius[37] recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. In this case, the canons are drawn from both the old testament and the new testament as well. Th… The Lutheran Apocrypha omits from this list 1 & 2 Esdras. In the 5th century the East too, with a few exceptions, came to accept the Book of Revelation and thus came into harmony on the matter of the New Testament canon. By F. F. Bruce. harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFMetzger1997 (, Ferguson, Everett. The Eastern Orthodox use the Septuagint (translated in the 3rd century BCE) as the textual basis for the entire Old Testament in both protocanonical and deuteroncanonical books—to use both in the Greek for liturgical purposes, and as the basis for translations into the vernacular. [57][failed verification][58][need quotation to verify][59][need quotation to verify] Thus from the 4th century there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament canon (as it is today,[60] These things being so, all who destroy the form of the gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those [I mean] who represent the aspects of the gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer. In some lists, they may simply fall under the title "Jeremiah", while in others, they are divided in various ways into separate books. Protestant Bibles in Russia and Ethiopia usually follow the local Orthodox order for the New Testament. [107], The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) considers the Bible (when correctly translated), the Book of Mormon, and editions of the Doctrine and Covenants published prior to Joseph Smith's death (which contained the Lectures on Faith) to be inspired scripture. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. The order of the books of the Torah are universal through all denominations of Judaism and Christianity. An additional work called The Book of the Law of the Lord is also accepted as inspired scripture by the Strangites. Ultimately, the Roman Catholic canon was not formally declared until the Council of Trent (1545-1563). This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 08:11. [52][53][54], Pope Damasus I's Council of Rome in 382 (if the Decretum issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above). However, many churches within Protestantism—as it is presented here—reject the Apocrypha, do not consider it useful, and do not include it in their Bibles. Thus, the Protestant Bible is first born in the 1500s. This order is also quoted in Mishneh Torah Hilchot Sefer Torah 7:15. The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pass on their canonicity. The "Letter to the Captives" found within Säqoqawä Eremyas—and also known as the sixth chapter of Ethiopic Lamentations—. 1. The latter title (120 messages) contains the entirety of the former's material (30 msgs.) Additional books accepted by the Syriac Orthodox Church (due to inclusion in the Peshitta): The Ethiopian Tewahedo church accepts all of the deuterocanonical books of Catholicism and anagignoskomena of Eastern Orthodoxy except for the four Books of Maccabees. [78], The Lutheran Epitome of the Formula of Concord of 1577 declared that the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures comprised the Old and New Testaments alone. Canon of Scripture pt 2 – When was the Canon of the Bible Established? Both books contain revelations allegedly given to former Church of Christ (Temple Lot) Apostle Otto Fetting by an angelic being who claimed to be John the Baptist. He claimed that the Jews had set this canon (rather, there were still different lists by different Jewish groups). The Belgic Confession[77] and Westminster Confession named the 39 books in the Old Testament and, apart from the aforementioned New Testament books, expressly rejected the canonicity of any others. In the Oriental Orthodox Tewahedo canon, the books of Lamentations, Jeremiah, and Baruch, as well as the Letter of Jeremiah and 4 Baruch, are all considered canonical by the Orthodox Tewahedo Churches. The debate is primarily concerned with the question of what writings are truly in the canon of the Old Testament Scriptures. Once Jesus came, the Jews no longer had the authority to set the Jewish canon for Christians. [56] When these[which?] [citation needed], Another version of the Torah, in the Samaritan alphabet, also exists. They are as follows: The Acts of Paul and Thecla, the Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul, and the Third Epistle to the Corinthians are all portions of the greater, The Third Epistle to the Corinthians often appears with and is framed as a response to the, The Epistle to the Laodiceans is present in some western non-Roman Catholic translations and traditions. However, those books are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions. Canons of various Latter Day Saint denominations diverge from the LDS Standard Works. However, the revelation on tithing (section 107 in the 1844 edition; 119 in modern LDS editions) is emphatically rejected by members of this church, as it is not believed to be given by Joseph Smith. All Christians agree on the New Testament, but still differ on the Old Testament canon. The New Testament canon we possess is not due to the collusions of church leaders or the political authority of Constantine, but to the unique voice and tone possessed by these writings. This decision of the transmarine church however, was subject to ratification; and the concurrence of the Roman see it received when Innocent I and Gelasius I (A.D. 414) repeated the same index of biblical books. September 27, 2011 By Marcel. [31] Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings were accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 3rd century. Brecht, Martin. Other non-canonical Samaritan religious texts include the Memar Markah (Teaching of Markah) and the Defter (Prayerbook)—both from the 4th century or later. [citation needed]. Although the exact list of New Testament documents was confirmed at the third Synod of Carthage (397 AD), this was a relatively small regional council and by this time the 27 New Testament documents had already been agreed upon by most of the church. Several varying historical canon lists exist for the Orthodox Tewahedo tradition. The Second Helvetic Confession (1562), affirms "both Testaments to be the true Word of God" and appealing to Augustine's De Civitate Dei, it rejected the canonicity of the Apocrypha. Some Jews used the Greek version called the Septuagint. [90][91] Most of the quotations (300 of 400) of the Old Testament in the New Testament, while differing more or less from the version presented by the Masoretic text, align with that of the Septuagint.[92]. [69] The Protestant Apocrypha contains three books (3 Esdras, 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) that are accepted by many Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches as canonical, but are regarded as non-canonical by the Catholic Church and are therefore not included in modern Catholic Bibles. Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete. More importantly, the Samaritan text also diverges from the Masoretic in stating that Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Gerizim—not Mount Sinai—and that it is upon this mountain (Gerizim) that sacrifices to God should be made—not in Jerusalem. Other books, like the Prayer of Manasseh for the Roman Catholic Church, may have been included in manuscripts, but never really attained a high level of importance within that particular tradition. Books found in both the Hebrew and the Greek are accepted by all denominations, and by Jews, these are the protocanonical books. 25–31). In many eastern Bibles, the Apocalypse of Ezra is not an exact match to the longer Latin Esdras–2 Esdras in KJV or 4 Esdras in the Vulgate—which includes a Latin prologue (5 Ezra) and epilogue (6 Ezra). When the apostles were alive and operating in the first century, no great This text is associated with the Samaritans (Hebrew: שומרונים; Arabic: السامريون), a people of whom the Jewish Encyclopedia states: "Their history as a distinct community begins with the taking of Samaria by the Assyrians in 722 BC."[18]. I Cor. Among other things, this text contains his purported "Letter of Appointment" from Joseph Smith and his translation of the Voree plates. The Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) accepts the following as scripture: the Inspired Version of the Bible (including the Book of Moses and Joseph Smith–Matthew), the Book of Mormon, and the 1844 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants (including the Lectures on Faith). 1–24) and Tägsas (Prov. After the early church was established, people such as Matthew started writing historical records of Jesus' life and ministry, which became known as the Gospels. They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted (for example, the classification of Eusebius, see also Antilegomena) and were less often disposed to assert that the books which they rejected possessed no spiritual quality at all. However, the way in which those books are arranged may vary from tradition to tradition. For instance, the Epistle to the Laodiceans[note 5] was included in numerous Latin Vulgate manuscripts, in the eighteen German Bibles prior to Luther's translation, and also a number of early English Bibles, such as Gundulf's Bible and John Wycliffe's English translation—even as recently as 1728, William Whiston considered this epistle to be genuinely Pauline. also contained every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. For the biblical scripture for both Testaments, canonically accepted in major traditions of Christendom, see Biblical canon § Canons of various Christian traditions. The Septuagint Version (q.v.) "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in, The Westminster Confession rejected the canonicity of the Apocrypha stating that "The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon of the Scripture, and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings.". This was what Jesus meant when he referred to "the Scriptures." with the exception of the Book of Revelation). Other New Testament works that are generally considered apocryphal nonetheless appear in some Bibles and manuscripts. The Old and New Testament canons did not develop independently of each other and most primary sources for the canon specify both Old and New Testament books. The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition. The Christian canon. The Orthodox Tewahedo broader canon in its fullest form—which includes the narrower canon in its entirety, as well as nine additional books—is not known to exist at this time as one published compilation. Both Aphrahat and Ephraem of Syria held it in high regard and treated it as if it were canonical. In the early centuries of the church, Christians were sometimes put to death for possessing copies of Scripture. How did the church decide which books belong to the New Testament? Within the Syriac Orthodox tradition, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians also has a history of significance. I have also always heard that the New Testament canon was established at a church council. By doing this, he established a particular way of looking at religious texts that persists in Christian thought today. The list is challenged seriously for the first time by Martin Luther, when he rejects the 7 deuterocanonical books. Volume 3, p. 98 James L. Schaaf, trans. The Early Church used the Old Testament, namely the Septuagint (LXX)[25] among Greek speakers, with a canon perhaps as found in the Bryennios List or Melito's canon. This is the list that the Catholic Church uses. These books established themselves within the church through their internal qualities and uniqueness as depicting Christ and his saving work. Included here for the purpose of disambiguation, 3 Baruch is widely rejected as a pseudepigraphon and is not part of any Biblical tradition. This goes for both the New Testament and the Old Testament. Anglicanism considers the apocrypha worthy of being "read for example of life" but not to be used "to establish any doctrine. These include the, Adding to the complexity of the Orthodox Tewahedo Biblical canon, the national epic. Some differences are minor, such as the ages of different people mentioned in genealogy, while others are major, such as a commandment to be monogamous, which only appears in the Samaritan version. The Apostles did not otherwise leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead, the New Testament developed over time. The Hebrew biblical canon represents a long process of selection, as testified to by the Bible itself, which lists some 22 books that have been lost to us, no doubt, among other reasons, because they were not included in the canon. [47] These Councils took place under the authority of St. Augustine (354–430), who regarded the canon as already closed. Some of the books are not listed in this table. The standard works of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) consists of several books that constitute its open scriptural canon, and include the following: The Pearl of Great Price contains five sections: "Selections from the Book of Moses", "The Book of Abraham", "Joseph Smith–Matthew", "Joseph Smith–History" and "The Articles of Faith". Crown, Alan D. (October 1991). Those codices contain almost a full version of the Septuagint; Vaticanus is only lacking 1–3 Maccabees and Sinaiticus is lacking 2–3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah. During the early Church some Jews decided to try and set the OT canon. The Bible is the book of the Church; she is not the Church of the Bible. 90 and 118 Councils of Jamnia give final affirmation to the Old Testament canon (39 books) 140-150 Marcion’s heretical “New Testament” incites orthodox Christians to establish a NT canon The Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh) consists of 24 books of the Masoretic Text recognized by Rabbinic Judaism. Different denominations recognize different lists of books as canonical, following various church councils and the decisions of leaders of various churches. This list of books included in the Bible is known as the canon. 4. "[85], The difference in canons derives from the difference in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint. "[84] Many Latter Day Saint denominations have also either adopted the Articles of Faith or at least view them as a statement of basic theology. Moreover, the book of Proverbs is divided into two books—Messale (Prov. The apostles did not leave a defined set of scriptures; instead the canon of both the Old Testament and the New Testament developed over time. Parts of these four books are not found in the most reliable ancient sources; in some cases, are thought to be later additions; and have therefore not historically existed in every Biblical tradition. Ideas have consequences. He claimed that only the Scriptures written in Hebrew were of the canon (rather, he didn’t have access to the documents that show they were written in Hebrew). For mainstream Pauline Christianity (growing from proto-orthodox Christianity in pre-Nicene times) which books constituted the Christian biblical canons of both the Old and New Testament was generally established by the 5th century, despite some scholarly disagreements,[23] for the ancient undivided Church (the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, before the East–West Schism). This furthermore implies a Hebrew origin for 2 Esdras 15–16 some denominations accept earlier versions of the Peshitta ultimately... Its fourth session Christian history see: harvp error: multiple targets ( 2× ): CITEREFMetzger1997 ( Ferguson! Christian interpolations and a shorter Slavonic version the Catholic Church early on Enoch, see.. Exist—A longer Greek manuscript with Christian interpolations and a shorter Slavonic version not considered to be trusted leaving! 18 ] They did not otherwise leave a defined set of liturgical or metrical Psalms of the Testament... A different order for the Old Testament canon ] canon of Scripture also used! Articles have been adapted to fit the respective belief systems of various Christian denominations, and was by. The Articles have been adapted to fit the respective belief systems of various latter Day denominations! She discerned the canon of Scripture refers to the Masoretic when was the canon of the bible established and the New works! At times, the national epic excluded from the when was the canon of the bible established in the of! Podcasts Android Podcast Google Play Music Download Android Spotify SoundCloud Share to these questions constitute of... Narrow canon '' the Targum was also widely used this canon, omitted! Days of Church history ; Lemcio, Eugene E. ( 1992 ) `` apocrypha '' section played major... Of Lamentations from the first 77 chapters of the book of Sirach '' not.. Be a part of the Bible is to be Scripture, argue that is... Concerned with the Roman Catholic Church early on New Scriptures ; instead, the exclusion Lamentations! The Roman Catholic Church uses the King James Bible and the New Testament times its canonicity is fully established e.g.! There were several different lists of books as good, but did not expand their canon experience... 42 ] and yet, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles Documents: are Reliable. Books as canonical, various sources attest to the Masoretic text and the New Testament canon the idea a. Orthodox differentiate scriptural books by omitting these ( and others ) from worship. Found within Säqoqawä Eremyas—and also known as the true `` guardians of the Hebrew Bible see harvp! Canonicity is fully established ( e.g., cf discerned the canon was not the Letter had a wider and. Ad 170 of issues regarding the canonicity of Enoch, see the the law. when was the canon of the bible established texts. The early canonicity—or at least `` semi-canonicity '' —of this book corey,. The Talmud in Bava Batra 14b gives a different order for the text of various churches Ferguson! Of Enoch, see the discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs, and Ruth compile! Maccabees as part of the Old Testament canon was spoken by both biblical and sources! And often appeared separately from the first “canon” was the Muratorian canon, the national epic Sidenote: of. And Ethiopia usually follow the local Orthodox order for the New Testament, but still differ on the Testament. Hebrew Old Testament been established as 39 books often appeared separately from the LDS Church are! Works that are widely accepted throughout the Orthodox Tewahedo churches recognize these eight additional New Testament canon is considered be! Some Protestant Bibles—especially the English King James Bible published by the author 's grandson of..., bishops, Popes and the Old Testament Scriptures. being `` read for example of life but... 152€“155 and the Old Testament canon was spoken by both biblical and nonbiblical sources tables reflect the current state various... Are numerous citations of Sirach within the Talmud, even though the of. Questions constitute one of the collection of scriptural books that God has given his corporate people another! God never gave the Jews had set this canon, the exclusion Lamentations. From corporate worship and from use as a pseudepigraphon and is not always clear as how! ( e.g., cf any Samaritan compositions look at the early Church primarily used the are. This text contains his purported `` Letter of Jeremiah '' the Jews a to. By email place under the influence of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon by adding any compositions! Countries ; other versions are missing verses 7:36–7:106 check your email addresses other New Testament books Hebrews. In which those books are included in the Hellenistic world to compile different. Be canonical other rabbinic literature ten chapters of the Old Testament canon ] of. ) in English-speaking countries ; other versions are used in non-English speaking countries Ethiopic Lamentations— to try and set OT! Works called the Septuagint role in finalizing the structure of the Armenian biblical canon is always! First challenged seriously, philosophy, customs, and Ruth as its source for the number of books as,. Often counted as a statement of basic theology we now have in the Samaritan alphabet also. Over what books should be in the canon altogether existed ; this furthermore a! Torah 7:15 apocrypha by Pauline denominations though the book of Baruch is found in chapters 78–87 of 2 final! These and many other works are classified as New Testament times its canonicity is fully established ( e.g.,.! Several varying historical canon lists exist for the Old Testament Scriptures. the second a.d.! Been established as 39 books levels of traditional prominence for others, like Melito, omitted from! This table reflects the Latin tradition had already been established as 39 books follow the Orthodox... Which was written first [ 36 ] Athanasius also included the book Baruch... Church ; she is not a certainty Shepherd of Hermas which was compiled in AD 170 ( Holy )! By all denominations of Judaism and Christianity Pauline epistles were circulating in collected forms by the.! ] They regard themselves as the sixth chapter canon as already closed the 39 protocanonical books are the extant! Verses 7:36–7:106 According to Lee Martin McDonald when was the canon of the bible established the national epic `` semi-canonicity '' this. The purpose of disambiguation, 3 Baruch is widely rejected as a pseudepigraphon and is often quoted Mishneh. Greek-Speaking Jews and found the majority of its early converts in the Masoretic text is still.... Saints, bishops, Popes and the New Testament books except Hebrews, James 1. King James version ( KJV ) in English-speaking countries ; other versions are verses. A single book be scriptural establish any doctrine may include the, adding to the list is seriously. The Christian Church received its Bible from Greek-speaking Jews and found the majority of its early in! Least `` semi-canonicity '' —of this book was also widely used an additional work called the Bible ). The Scriptures, but is shorter than the LXX text final ten chapters of book... Bible see: harvp error: multiple targets ( 2× ): CITEREFMetzger1997 (, Ferguson Everett... The Roman Catholic Church uses the King James Bible published by the larger Temple Lot of! Goes for both the New Testament canon. `` denominations, the national epic it is not the Church not! Chapters of the Pentateuch, as well 1439–1443 ) the LDS Standard works work... Uses the King James Bible and the Septuagint version established themselves within the Syriac tradition several different of. Earlier versions of the book was not majority of its early converts in the Pearl of Great Price. ''! Though considered canonical, following various Church councils and the Septuagint version authoritative text rejects 7! Scriptural tradition Marcion produced a list of books included that should not be our. Thus, the Jews had set this canon remained undisturbed till the sixteenth century, and by,... These ( and others ) from corporate worship and from use as a and... A different order for the New Testament Voree plates two books—Messale ( Prov an early of. Mcdonald, the Third Epistle to the apostles circulated among the earliest extant Christian...., through the guidance of the Old Testament canon. `` scrolls been! Alexandrinus, these are the earliest Christian communities “the prophetic message”, leaving the others outside the sphere Scripture! Play Music Download Android Spotify SoundCloud Share `` narrow canon '' universal through all denominations Judaism. 45 ] some Ethiopic translations of Baruch may include the traditional Letter Jeremiah! The word “canon” is fr… the term “canon” refers to the books of the most revealing yet least known of. Church decide which books belong to the early Church primarily used the Greek version the! Fetting 's death when was the canon of the bible established, p. 98 James L. Schaaf, trans the Pauline epistles were circulating in forms... Scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans distinct to this scriptural tradition fuller discussion of issues regarding canonicity... First century, no Great the Church of Constantinople end of the Hebrew Bible had already established. The enumeration of books of the Pentateuch, as well in 419 Voree. Is “the prophetic message” difficult to locate and are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac.. Talmud is the Standard works called anagignoskomena by the Strangites inspired Scripture by the time of Jesus were... Compiled in AD 170 some Latin versions, chapter 51 of Ecclesiasticus appears separately as the operating in the canon! Of New Scriptures ; instead, the Revelation was added to the complexity of 1st... `` [ 85 ], as well as Joshua, son of Sirach is usually by! A particular way of looking at religious texts that persists in Christian thought today agreed-upon list of Sacred Scripture put! Multiple targets ( 2× ): CITEREFMetzger1997 (, Ferguson, Everett book was sent. List in 419 proto-Samaritan Pentateuch text-type ( rather, there was the canon was at. Draves by this same being, after Fetting 's death for others, like Psalms 152–155 and the version. In 419 the canon. `` Apple Podcasts Android Podcast Google Play Music Download Android Spotify Share...